Passover is an interesting celebration. It is 7 days long, each day has a special meaning and prayer. It honors the sparing of the enslaved Jews in Egypt from the angel of death. The Jews were saved by painting their doors with the blood of the lamb. We know from the gospels that Jesus was crucified during a Passover. Dating the actual crucifixion, not an easy task, can be accomplished by understanding a few things about Passover. We know from the New Testament that Jesus was crucified sometimes between 29 CE to 34 CE. Passover is always on the 15th of Nissan (remember the Jewish prophets were born and died during Nissan). The Jewish calendar is a lunar calendar. Each month begins on a new Moon. The 15th of each month is always near that months full Moon. The first day of Passover, in the month of Nissan, is always near the first full Moon after the spring equinox. Therefore if we know the full Moon phases for the first full Moon phases after the spring equinox for the years of 29 CE through 34 CE, we are closer to finding the date of the crucifixion. But, we also need to find a full Moon that falls near a Thursday because the synoptic gospels inform us that the Last Supper was on a Thursday before the Friday crucifixion, John mentions that Thursday was a Passover preparation meal leading scholars to believe Passover was the next day on Friday.
If your not confused yet you are probably asking how can this be done? Luckily, NASA has the date for every full Moon phase during this time. Now all we need to do is to somehow find the day of the week for these years, and find which year the full Moon occurred on a Thursday. This can be done thanks to the US Navy. They have a date converter that will inform anyone the weekday name for any date in history BCE. or CE. Thus, we know the full Moon phases and the day of week for each full Moon around the time of the crucifixion. My next post will examine more the years possible for the crucifixion to have occurred in, and which one is the best choice. In my book, I explain in greater detail in Chapter 3 the history of Passover, the differences between solar and lunar calendars, and how it is possible to apply a Gregorian date (our calendar) to an ancient lunar calendar. In Chapter 7, I explain in greater detail which Passover year between 29 CE. to 34 CE. is the best choice for the crucifixion to have occurred during, and how to test the Naval date converter for accuracy.
I have gotten several requests for information on how to see previews to my book, The Essence of Perfection. I can only post so much on the website because it is too easy to copy and reprint. I would suggest that if you want to see a real copy of the book to visit or call your local Barnes and Noble store and ask them to stock a couple of copies of the book. It is printed through Nook, a B&N company, so the store can order an actual copy at a small cost. You can also see a small sample on amazon at the link below by clicking on the book cover. I apologize for not having better reviews at this time, but hope to post more over time. If you do read the book please leave a review on the Amazon and Barnes and Noble websites.
Here is a table of contents and a short overview of the book that is presented in the Introduction.
This book was extremely difficult to write, especially as it is my first. It was written and researched for over a decade and remained dormant for long stretches, as I was frustrated over conflicting dates and theories. At times, this book was on the verge of being consigned to the dustbin of theology. However, what follows is a product that, I believe, presents this material in the best way. Chapter 1, “The Integral Existence,” defines the idea of an integral existence. Verses found in the Talmud first suggested the concept that the Jewish Prophets were born and died during the time of the Jewish Passover, during the Jewish month of Nissan. This would include Jesus, who was considered a prophet or rabbi. Even today, the Talmud it is an important part of worship for many Jews. Many non-Jews are also interested in the Talmud’s content and read it to gain inner knowledge and peace. This chapter will also briefly explain what the Talmud is, and some of the history behind its creation.
“Chapter 2, “Talmudic Rabbis and Church Fathers,” discusses the rabbis who first wrote down the integral idea from ancient oral law and provided commentary on it. It will then turn its attention to the Church Fathers, who had a similar concept. In particular, two rabbis, Hillel the Elder and Rabbi, and two Church Fathers, Clement of Alexandria and St. Hippolytus, are at the forefront in providing evidence for the scholarly pursuit of the integral idea. It will also attempt to explain how it was that these two similar concepts never crossed paths throughout the history of the two great religions.
In order to find appropriate years for the integral age of Jesus, the Jewish calendar needs to be properly examined. This will be the focus of Chapter 3, “The Jewish Calendar and Passover,” where Jewish months, days, and years are compared with the dates of Passover. Chapter 4, “The Nativity,” narrates the story of the Nativity and the alternating versions of it given in the first four books of the New Testament. In order to achieve a better understanding of the Nativity, an examination of the wise men from the East is required. This will be the subject of Chapter 5, “The Magi.” Here, I examine both the existing theories and a few new ones about who the Magi were and where they came from. Looking closely at the Magi is important because they were witnesses to the infant Jesus as well as to the only solid piece of evidence from the time, the Star of Bethlehem, which guided them. Chapter 6, “The Star of Bethlehem” attempts to use the integral concept to find an acceptable date for the first Passover and a valid date for the Nativity of Jesus. “The Crucifixion” and “The Resurrection” will be studied in Chapters 7 and 8, respectively. Finally, Chapter 9, “Perfection in Nature,” will explore the question of whether there is a deeper meaning to the integral idea. This was in some ways the most interesting for me to write. Church Fathers like Clement and Hippolytus, men of great faith, were not afraid to suggest new concepts based partly on scripture and partly on faith. While this book is based on theory and my thoughts on God and the calendar, the final chapter, which I wrote to honor Clement and Hippolytus and their methods of theology, moves furthest into the realm of speculation. Science and theology can balance one another in harmony.
The Epilogue attempts to connect and unify the ideas presented throughout the book. The final verdict stating when, in my view, the Nativity and Resurrection occurred can be found here. The evidence will be presented and neatly summed up. Most authors have a purpose for their work. This will also be articulated here. Although intended as scholarly pursuit, this book has the potential to be used to advance many different agendas. I only hope that they are noble.
Part I: The Perception of Integral
Chapter I: The Integral Existence 12
Chapter 2: Talmudic Rabbis and Church Fathers 53
Chapter 3: The Jewish Calendar and Passover 97
Part II: The Passover Birth
Chapter 4: The Nativity 119
Chapter 5: The Magi 143
Chapter 6: The Star of Bethlehem 167
Part III: The Passover Death
Chapter 7: The Crucifixion 210
Chapter 8: The Resurrection 243
Chapter 9: Perfection in Nature 258
What is the Integral Idea? This is from part of my book, The Essence of Perfection, from Chapter One.
During the days of Jesus’ life on earth, he offered up prayers and petitions with loud cries and tears to the one who could save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverent submission. Although he was a son, he learned obedience from what he suffered and, once made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him and was designated by God to be high priest in the order of Melchizedek.
—Hebrews 5: 7–10
The author of Hebrews mentions the phrase “once made perfect” when describing Jesus after the Passion. This only occurred after Jesus went through more than ample amounts of suffering. When one thinks of what he endured near the conclusion of his lifetime in order to provide the world salvation, the final result becomes much more comprehensible. Jesus died with the burden of all the world’s sin but was made perfect afterward because of his sacrifice. However, the question arises, what is perfect in the eyes of God, and how are people to understand its full meaning?
It may be possible that being made perfect by God is much more complex than just being free of sin or being all knowing. It might include Christ’s being perfect in the number of days lived. After all, God created days and years also. Genesis is an excellent example of God’s use of days and time and the importance of keeping track of such matters. This concept is nothing new; it was pondered many centuries ago by some of the most renowned Christian, Jewish, and even pagan intellectuals.
Knowledge may sometimes lead people into dark and unexplored areas, but the experience is nevertheless invaluable. The author of John provides insight into the idea that the Bible leaves out much, and that other sources should be further analyzed and evaluated in a proper method. Why stop only at a basic edification of spiritual well-being? John 21:25 states, “Jesus did many other things as well. If every one of them were written down, I suppose that even the whole world would not have room for the books that would be written.”
Judaism before the time of Christ believed in the idea of the “integral age” of the great Jewish Prophets—that those who lived a divine life were conceived or born and died on the same date. This belief was written in the of the Babylon Talmud. It states that the truest Jewish prophets were born and died during Passover, in the Jewish month of Nissan (March/April):
R. Yehoshua, says: In Nissan the world was created, and in the same month the patriarchs were born, and in Nissan they also died; Isaac was born on the Passover; on New Year’s Day Sarah, Rachel, and Hannah were visited, Joseph was released from prison, and the bondage of our fathers in Egypt ceased. In Nissan our ancestors were redeemed from Egypt, and in the same month we shall again be redeemed .
Chapter One explores more about the history behind the Integral Idea. My next post will explore the idea of Jesus dying during Passover (the patriarchs died during Passover). This happened on April 7, 30 CE. The Resurrection occurred 3 days later on April 9, 30 CE. If you want to know more about the Greek philosophers, Church Fathers, and Jewish Rabbis who developed this concept or why it never developed fully until now read by book The Essence of Perfection.
3 Michael L. Rodkinson and Isaac M. Wise, New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud (Boston: Boston New Talmud Society, 1918), 917.
14 years ago I became interested in the date that Jesus was born. This led to several years of research, I quickly realized that there was no valid information that provided any real answers to this question. Since this website is getting some interest I will post from time to time some of the information I learned during this quest.