Luke 3:1 tells us that Jesus was baptized, starting his ministry, by John the Baptist in the 15th year of Tiberius. This was 29 CE. The synoptic books inform us that his ministry lasted a year based on the fact that only one Passover is mentioned. But, John mentions 3 Passovers. In Chapter 7 of my book I provide a valid answer for this difference. From the book, The Essence of Perfection:
According to Bart Ehrman, the author of the Gospel of John had sources for his narrative of the life of Jesus:
It is possible, though, that John actually produced several different version of his Gospel. Readers have long noted, for example, that chapter 21 seems to come to an end in 20:30–31; and the events of chapter 21 seem to be a kind of afterthought, possibly added to fill out the stories of Jesus’s resurrection appearances and to explain that when the “beloved disciple” responsible for narrating the traditions in the Gospel had died, this was not unforeseen (cf. 21:22–23).
If this is the case, then it is quite possible that the three Passovers mentioned in John were one and the same, which parallels the other canonical books. It could also been possible that the authors of John intended passages from the book to be read every day, as the Jewish scriptures are read. If this is true, then the three daily readings that mentioned a Passover may have been confused as three Passovers. This may explain why some scholars date Jesus’s ministry as three years. It may also be that the period of Jesus’s ministry included two Passovers within the same calendar year.
Perhaps the best defense for the three-in-one Passover theory for the Gospel of John is that crimes against the Jewish religion were considered the worst in the eyes of the law. According to Henri Daniel-Rops in Daily Life in the Time of Jesus, rebelling against God was high treason. Breaking the Sabbath was a crime worthy of death, while failing to celebrate Passover could result in the guilty being outlawed.[John mentions three Passovers. The first is John 2:13–3:25, in which Jesus clears the Temple of sellers and money changers and proclaims himself in authority. This event alone was enough for Jewish leaders to consider Jesus worthy of death or banishment. But John mentions two more Passovers. John 6:1–70 tells of the feeding of five thousand right before Passover, and John 13:1–19:42 tells of Jesus’s final days. It is possible that John was composed of several narratives that were combined into one book. This may explain the differences between John and the other Gospels. Despite the confusion, John does leave an important clue about when this event happened. John 2:13–22 states,
When it was almost time for the Jewish Passover. Jesus went up to Jerusalem. In the temple courts, he found men selling cattle, sheep, and doves, and others sitting at tables exchanging money. So he made a whip out of cords, and drove all from the temple area, both sheep and cattle; he scattered the coins of the money changers and overturned their tables. To those who sold doves he said, “Get these out of here! How dare you turn my Father’s house into a market!” His disciples remembered that it is written: “Zeal for your house will consume me.” Then the Jews demanded of Him “What miraculous sign can you show us to prove your authority to do all this?” Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and I will rise it again in three days.” The Jews replied, “It had taken forty-six years to build this temple, and you are going to raise it in three?” But the temple he had spoken of was his body.
John informs the reader in this verse that Jesus was in Jerusalem during his ministry shortly before Passover 46 years after the construction of the Temple of Jerusalem com-menced. According to Graetz in the History of the Jews, “In the eighteenth year of the Herod’s reign (19 BCE) the building was begun, and in one year and a half (17 BCE) the inner part of the Temple was finished.”[This places Jesus’s cleansing of the Temple to around 29 or 30 CE. If Jesus’s ministry lasted one year, this also places the Crucifixion from 29 to 30 CE.
This brings to the forefront the question of which year, 28, 29, or 30 CE is the better fit for what the writers of Gospels had in mind when they were calculating the date for the Crucifixion. Appendix 2 (in the back of the book) shows when the Passover full Moon occurred during each year. We can run the dates of the full-Moon phases of Passover for the years 29 and 30 CE through the Naval Converter in order to learn whether either Passover in those two years occurred on a Friday night. Passover always occurs on the first full Moon after the vernal equinox. According to NASA’s vernal equinox time and date converter,[the vernal equinox for 28 CE, 29 CE, and 30 CE occurred on March 20. The first full Moon after March 20, 28 CE, was March 29 03:22 Greenwich Time; the first full Moon after March 20, 29 CE, was on April 17, 02:45 Greenwich Time, while the first full Moon after March 20, 30 CE, was on April 6, 19:42 Greenwich Time.
220 Ehrman, Misquoting Jesus, 61.
221 Henri Daniel-Rops, Daily Life in the Time of Jesus (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1962), 201.
222 Graetz, History of the Jews, 109.
Therefore, scholars need to find a year around 30 CE. when the Full Moon was on a Thursday or Friday to correspond to the Gospels. This can be done with aid from the US Naval date converter. In my book, I have tested the converter with historic primary sources from the last two-thousand years. The earliest date I have tested so far is from 397 CE. Thus, the 7-day week has been consistent since that date. I further believe that since there were no major events that could have changed that tradition. Both Jews and Christians were practicing the 7-Day week as long ago as the birth of Jesus. In fact the 7-Day week may be the oldest continued religious practice dating well past the life of Moses. Based on that information I listed below the weekday that each Passover Full Moon occurred on between 27 CE. and 34 CE. From this you can see that 30 CE. and 33 CE. are the best years for the Crucifixion to have occurred during.
April 9, 27 CE
March 29, 28 CE
April 17, 29 CE
April 6, 30 CE
March 27, 31 CE
April 14, 32 CE
April 3, 33 CE
April 22, 34 CE
Also from the book:
Evidence for a 30, CE Passover Crucifixion
1. The Talmud states that for 40 years before the destruction of Herod’s Temple several ominous miracles occurred before the Roman attack and following Temple destruction in 70 CE—meaning something unusual occurred in 30 CE.
2. Of the Passover dates from around this period, only 30 and 33 CE have a full Moon that are close to the time of Jesus’s Friday death. The 30 CE date is on a Thursday and the 33 date is on a Friday, so these would fit with the Friday Crucifixion and Sunday Resurrection.
3. John 2:20 states, The Jews replied, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and you are going to raise it in three days? The reconstruction of the Temple by Herod was begun in 19 BCE, with the inner Temple finished in 17 BCE. Forty-six years later would be around 29 CE. This is close enough to fit with the one-year ministry suggested in Matthew, Mark, and Luke to allow for a 30 CE Crucifixion.
4. Luke 3:1–23 informs us that Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius, and his ministry lasted one year. Tiberius’s reign began in 14 CE; therefore, the fifteenth year would have been 29 CE, the start of Jesus’s one-year ministry. The following year, 30 CE, Jesus was crucified.
5. Clement of Alexandri wrote in the third century of the followers of Basilides, “Making a precise calculation, there are some who place his Passion in the sixteenth year of Tiberius Caesar on the twenty-fifth of Phamenoth.” The sixteenth year of Tiberius was 30 CE. But, the 25 of Phamenoth, the spring equinox, was on March 21, which is far from the April 6 start of Passover. 
224 Based on the Alexandrian calendar date of Phamenoth 25, 30 CE, from Robert Harry van Gent’s Almagest Ephemeris Calculator, www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/astro/almagestephemeris.htm.
Therefore, after all of my research, I believe Jesus was Crucified on April 7, 30 CE and Resurrected on April 9, 30 CE. The table below is from the NASA Moon phase website. Over the next few posts I will examine the year of the Nativity. I have a very special post for next week on a passage from the Talmud which will really make you think and respect the wisdom of the Oral Law. Until then thank you, and God bless!
14 years ago I became interested in the date that Jesus was born. This led to several years of research, I quickly realized that there was no valid information that provided any real answers to this question. Since this website is getting some interest I will post from time to time some of the information I learned during this quest.